Originally shown to promote the growth and activation of B cells, TSLP is now known to have wide-ranging impacts on hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell lineages, including DCs, basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, CD4(+), CD8(+), and NK T cells, B cells, and epithelial cells. Whereas the role of TSLP in the promotion of TH2 responses has been studied extensively in the context of lung- and skin-specific allergic disorders, it is becoming increasingly clear that TSLP may impact multiple disease states within multiple organ systems, including the blockade of TH1/TH17 responses and the promotion of cancer and autoimmunity. This review will highlight recent advances in the understanding of TSLP signal transduction, as well as the role of TSLP in allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer. Importantly, these insights into the multifaceted roles of TSLP could potentially allow for novel, therapeutic manipulations of these disorders.

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